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Freeview reception - all about aerials

Your ability to receive all the Freeview transmissions depends on the suitability of aerial: the design style, "group" and its physical location.

Your ability to receive all the Freeview transmissions depends
published on UK Free TV

Updated 8th January 2014.

Your ability of receive all the Freeview transmissions depends on the suitability of aerial

  • the design style,
  • the "group", and
  • its physical location.

Standard type - Yagi aerial

The standard type of TV aerial is known as the Yagi aerial. It is mounted on a pole, and consists of a rod with a reflector (shown green) at the back and many spiky elements (in grey) at the front. The connecting cable connects to the element nearest the reflector, known as the driver (shown in blue).

These Yagi aerials are directional and so pick up signals best from a transmitter that the rod points towards. The more elements the aerial has, the better it picks up a signal and becomes more directional.

A standard-type aerial is all that is required for digital TV reception in most places. These antennae have between 10 and 18 elements and a single reflector. These are recommended for new installations for good digital television reception, but will more often than not function perfectly in good reception areas.

Typically these aerials are designed to receive only some transmission frequencies - see "groups" below.

High Gain aerials

These aerials are designed for poor digital reception areas, and have two reflectors. For maximum signal strength, some digital high gain aerials have up to 100 elements. Since the switchover to digital-only transmissions back in October 2012, most UK households now have good quality digital TV signals.

A more expensive aerial is only required where the signal strength is low, but can often provide the whole Freeview reception where it might otherwise be impossible.

The CAI (that represents aerial installers) has four standards for digital TV aerials. The highest standard "1" is for homes on the fringes of coverage areas, intermediate standard "2" is suitable for use within the coverage area; minimum standard "3" is for good coverage conditions.

These aerials can be either wideband, or receive only selected frequencies - see "groups" below.


You may haved used a 'Grid aerial' for analogue reception, but as they are generally unsuitable for Freeview reception, they have now generally been replaced by the Yagi type. However in some places a Grid aerial installation may work for Freeview: otherwise replace with a standard Yagi aerial.


Indoor aerials are generally not suitable for Freeview reception. In areas of good signal strength it is often possible to receive some transmissions. Even where an aerial works, people often find that may get interruptions to their viewing (or recording).

Loft mounted

Loft mounted arrivals are not generally recommended for Freeview reception, as the roof tiles and plumbing will degrade the signal. Some compensation for this loss of signal can be made by using satellite-grade cable to connect the set top box to the aerial.


The best position for a TV aerial is mounted outdoors, as high from the ground as possible, pointing directly at the transmitter. The signal can be blocked by hills and tall buildings. It should be positioned away from any other aerials.

Horizontal or vertical?

The transmitter will either use vertical mode which requires the elements of your aerial to be up-down, or horizontal mode which requires them to be level with the ground.


Both analogue and digital television is transmitted the same group of transmission frequencies (known as channel 21 through to 60). A coloured marking on the aerial shows the group.

To create the best possible analogue picture, TV transmissions from adjacent transmitters have been designated to several different groups of frequencies. By using an aerial that receives only the channels in the correct group, the analogue picture can be kept free from interference.

To receive Freeview transmissions from the same transmitter it has been sometimes necessary to use frequencies that are not part of the transmitter's normal group. When this has occurred, the aerial will need to be replaced with a "wideband" aerial (also known as group W) - one that covers every group.

As Ofcom is planning to move the TV frequencies again - perhaps as soon as 2018 - it may be wise to use a wideband aerial if you can to ensure you can keep viewing Freeview for many years to come.

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In this section
Loft aerials1
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Monday, 10 January 2011

2:08 PM

allan: No, an amplifier will not help. You need to move the aerial to the roof where it can have a clear line-of-sight to the transmitter.

Yes, the signal will be stronger after switchover.

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Briantist's 38,910 posts GB flag
2:16 PM

If the problem is down to the lowish signal strength then maybe I can live with it until switchover ? When will this happen in my area ?
Many thanks for your advice

link to this comment
allan's 3 posts EU flag
allan's: mapA's Freeview map terrainA's terrain plot wavesA's frequency data A's Freeview Detailed Coverage

2:20 PM

allan: The final switchover date is Wednesday 24th August 2011, but you may still have the same problems with a loft aerial.

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Briantist's 38,910 posts GB flag
2:48 PM

I appreciate that outside is best but I am reluctant to go that way because of a fairly minor irritation. As I say the breakup seems to happen when a vehicle is passing but only on HD so I wonder if a different ariel or some sort of screen might sort it. The ariel I have looks like a class 2 at the top of this page.

Thanks again allan

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allan's 3 posts EU flag
3:51 PM

Many thanks Brian. We've always had the aerial plugged into the pvr (& then the pvr connected to the telly by HDMI cable). When the pvr is failing to pick up channels though i switch the aerial back to the telly which seems to work better. That's what I don't understand - does it suggest problem is with tuner in pvr (one week old) rather than our aerial or transmitter?

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Hackett's 4 posts GB flag
Hackett's: mapH's Freeview map terrainH's terrain plot wavesH's frequency data H's Freeview Detailed Coverage

4:26 PM

allan: No type of aerial is suitable for loft reception of reliable digital services.

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Briantist's 38,910 posts GB flag
dennis whenary
5:43 PM

digital freeview keeps breaking up ts20.

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dennis whenary's 1 post GB flag
Tuesday, 11 January 2011

8:48 AM

Hackett: Not all equipment has the same level of sensitivity to different signal conditions. Usually a PVR, with two tuners, will require a slightly better signal than a single-tuner TV.

If you have only just got it, the device could reasonably be thought of as faulty, I would have thought.

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Briantist's 38,910 posts GB flag
9:13 PM

Hi, we appear to have lost a number of channels recently. The TV is in the bedroom and although the channels appear to be in the same mutiplex we have no devices connected or near to the TV plus all was fine until recently. Any help appreciated

link to this comment
Tim's 2 posts GB flag
Tim's: mapT's Freeview map terrainT's terrain plot wavesT's frequency data T's Freeview Detailed Coverage
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