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Freeview reception - all about aerials
Brian Butterworth published on UK Free TV
- the design style,
- the "group", and
- its physical location.
Standard type - Yagi aerial
The standard type of TV aerial is known as the Yagi aerial. It is mounted on a pole, and consists of a rod with a reflector (shown green) at the back and many spiky elements (in grey) at the front. The connecting cable connects to the element nearest the reflector, known as the driver (shown in blue).
These Yagi aerials are directional and so pick up signals best from a transmitter that the rod points towards. The more elements the aerial has, the better it picks up a signal and becomes more directional.
A standard-type aerial is all that is required for digital TV reception in most places. These antennae have between 10 and 18 elements and a single reflector. These are recommended for new installations for good digital television reception, but will more often than not function perfectly in good reception areas.
Typically these aerials are designed to receive only some transmission frequencies - see "groups" below.
High Gain aerials
These aerials are designed for poor digital reception areas, and have two reflectors. For maximum signal strength, some digital high gain aerials have up to 100 elements. Since the switchover to digital-only transmissions back in October 2012, most UK households now have good quality digital TV signals.
A more expensive aerial is only required where the signal strength is low, but can often provide the whole Freeview reception where it might otherwise be impossible.
The CAI (that represents aerial installers) has four standards for digital TV aerials. The highest standard "1" is for homes on the fringes of coverage areas, intermediate standard "2" is suitable for use within the coverage area; minimum standard "3" is for good coverage conditions.
These aerials can be either wideband, or receive only selected frequencies - see "groups" below.
You may haved used a 'Grid aerial' for analogue reception, but as they are generally unsuitable for Freeview reception, they have now generally been replaced by the Yagi type. However in some places a Grid aerial installation may work for Freeview: otherwise replace with a standard Yagi aerial.
IndoorIndoor aerials are generally not suitable for Freeview reception. In areas of good signal strength it is often possible to receive some transmissions. Even where an aerial works, people often find that may get interruptions to their viewing (or recording).
Loft mountedLoft mounted arrivals are not generally recommended for Freeview reception, as the roof tiles and plumbing will degrade the signal. Some compensation for this loss of signal can be made by using satellite-grade cable to connect the set top box to the aerial.
PositioningThe best position for a TV aerial is mounted outdoors, as high from the ground as possible, pointing directly at the transmitter. The signal can be blocked by hills and tall buildings. It should be positioned away from any other aerials.
Horizontal or vertical?The transmitter will either use vertical mode which requires the elements of your aerial to be up-down, or horizontal mode which requires them to be level with the ground.
GroupsBoth analogue and digital television is transmitted the same group of transmission frequencies (known as channel 21 through to 60). A coloured marking on the aerial shows the group.
To create the best possible analogue picture, TV transmissions from adjacent transmitters have been designated to several different groups of frequencies. By using an aerial that receives only the channels in the correct group, the analogue picture can be kept free from interference.
To receive Freeview transmissions from the same transmitter it has been sometimes necessary to use frequencies that are not part of the transmitter's normal group. When this has occurred, the aerial will need to be replaced with a "wideband" aerial (also known as group W) - one that covers every group.
As Ofcom is planning to move the TV frequencies again - perhaps as soon as 2018 - it may be wise to use a wideband aerial if you can to ensure you can keep viewing Freeview for many years to come.
Help with Television sets?
Friday, 24 February 2017
7:13 PM Ipswich
StevensOnln1: Thanks for your help, I'm relieved to know that it's the TV tuner rather than a problem with the aerial. And I guess when I do replace my TV I'll be very careful to make sure a new one has a DVB-T2 tuner. Not in any immediate rush to do that yet though as the Humax Box has all the smart capability that I need at the moment anyway.
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Alan's: Freeview map terrain plot frequency data R&TI Service digitaluk trade DAB coverage
Tuesday, 28 March 2017
I'm on Rowridge and am receiving conflicting information. The aerial installer is saying VP is by far the best giving the strongest signal I am 38 km from the transmitter it radiates both HP and VP. UK digital say you should use HP to get all the channels then why should whoever invest in a new transmitter radiating VP. Your columnists suggest the VP has been powered down from 200,000 kw to 50,000 kw All I know is my picture and reception of certain stations is poor HD is difficult at best. I expect to have problems in the summer with leaves on the trees but no leaves at the moment. Oh for VHF
Thanks for any help VP or HP
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Martyn: Digital UK are still reporting that COM4/5/6 are broadcasting at 200kW on Rowridge VP, there hasn't been any reduction in broadcast power on Rowridge or any other transmitter (just an error in the date on this website). The only multiplexes not available on Rowridge VP are COM7/8 and the local mux, all of which are intended to operate at a much lower cost than PSB1-3 and COM4-6 which is why they are only broadcast on Rowridge HP. As per my reply to your other post earlier, it would be best to turn your aerial to HP if that previously gave you a good signal.
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